Build a Garveyite Political Party in Jamaica. Start Now!

August 17 2020

By Al Gray

If Marcus Garvey’s spirit passed through Jamaica today, still with his inexhaustible energy, passion and vision for the unity of all Africans at home and abroad, and for the establishment of a United States of Africa, what would he be saying to us?

No one can be sure but here are my thoughts.  First, he would be asking those who have withdrawn from this national election process: where is your party? where is the party with the red, black and green flag, with the programme to teach (or hopefully continue teaching) the youth about their roots in the great civilizations of Africa like Songhai and Mali?  Where are our strong non-exploitative business and cultural links to organizations in Africa?  What about the Black Star Line?  True, I was sabotaged but the vision was correct.  What have you done to establish a Black Star Line 2?

What are you doing to stand up with the African brothers in the US who are being slaughtered like chickens and whose consciousness as a dignified race and people is now beginning to re-emerge?  We, Jamaicans, have always been at the forefront of African consciousness.  What specifically are we doing to continue this great legacy?  Are you in touch with the Black is Back Coalition in the USA?  Look beyond your borders to express and receive solidarity.

Related: 10 Quotes from Marcus Garvey

Why don’t we see vibrant UNIA organizations in all communities’ island-wide, linked through businesses, schools and cultural activities?

Why are our universities, the centres of education for those who are usually among the most progressive in our society, the youth, why are they so backward in this regard?  Why, since Michael Manley dared revive our slogan of self-reliance, despite the might of US imperialism, why have we seemingly reversed his slogan to “backward ever, forward never”?  What are you teaching our youth about the need to change this society to work in the interest of people of African descent?

Have the two traditional parties united or divided the people?  Have they contributed to the legacy of brutal warfare of brother African against brother African?  If so, what is on your agenda to wipe this remnant of mental slavery from the face of our country?

Related:  Ghana President Nana Akufo Addo Speech on 100 Anniversary of UNIA

Or, are we still a colony just dressed up differently with the new colonizers working behind the scenes – divide and rule?  Why are we still looking to the IMF, the World Bank, USAID, and the agencies that everyone knows operates as an instrument of the imperialists?

We need a new vibrant party, no matter how long it takes and no matter how many challenges internally and externally that are placed in the way.  There are enough people who are not involved in the present political parties, at home and abroad, who can be brought together under the umbrella of the red, black and green flag. The two-party system took many countries to so-called political independence, but life has shown us that they cannot go any further.  A different kind of party is needed for economic and cultural liberation. Parties that are linked across geographical borders.

Brothers and sisters, he might say, its time, in fact way past time, to look within your class, within your communities for leaders, those who will unite the hundreds of thousands who dominate the ranks of the poorer class.  It is time to look for those among yourselves who have the courage, and who cannot be swayed by money and other forms of bribery.  it can be done; it has been done.  Toussaint and the heroic Haitian people did it in 1804‼!.  Bolivar and the heroic Latin American people did it shortly after; Fidel, Che and the heroic Cubans did it.  It is time for Jamaicans to show that our greatness is not just in music and athleticism, we are the sons of Nanny, Tacky and Sam Sharpe.  Parliamentary “democracy’ is a scam, we all know that it has kept us in- dependence on the imperial powers.

Related:  Marcus Garvey’s Glowing Praise of Lenin

As we celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of the Rights of the Negro People’s of the World, let us rekindle the spirit of Marcus Garvey and target having a vibrant UNIA branch in every community in Jamaica in the next decade, as we lay the foundation for a new Garveyite party or the strengthening of any that now exists.  Do not wait on anyone, start now and make this a lifelong task‼!

One aim, one love, one destiny

Al Gray is a retired Jamaican living in the USA. He can be reached at greyal2@yahoo.com

140 Cuban Healthcare Professionals Arrive in Jamaica to Combat the Coronavirus

Solidarity as a Principle

For more than 60 years of revolution, the Cuban people have defended solidarity as a principle. Evidence of this is the departure for Jamaica of a Cuban medical brigade made up of 140 health collaborators. We’ll face the Covid-19 together and cooperating,” tweeted Cuba’s Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez.

On Saturday, March 21, Jamaica welcomed the Cuban medical professionals to the island, to help in their country’s fight against COVID-19.

The medical professionals arrived at the Norman Manley International Airport, and were greeted by Jamaica’s Minister of Health and Wellness, Dr Christopher Tufton and Cuban Ambassador to Jamaica, Inés Fors Fernández.

140 cuban healthcare workers arrive in ja

According to the Ministry, the team comprises of 90 nurses specializing in critical care, emergency, medical-surgical and primary care; a team of 46 doctors who are internists and haematologists, and four therapists.

In keeping with the government’s current regulations for travel, the entire team will be quarantined for 14 days before being deployed across hospitals islandwide.

Thank you Cuba!

Health Minister Tufton warmly welcomed the group to the island.  “Thank you, Cuba for your quick response to our request for support against COVID-19.  Thanks to the local health team who coordinated to get this mission here in just over a month,” said the minister.

A spokesperson for the medical team said Cuba was happy to assist Jamaica, and stressed the importance of solidarity amid the spiraling spread of the virus. “We will assist our sister nation. We are proud of following the principles of the Cuban medical collaboration,” said Eduardo Ropero, head of the 140-member Cuban corps.

“We, along with Cuban doctors already working in Jamaica as part of a bilateral agreement between the two governments, are committed to helping address COVID-19,” he added.

In a press release issued on March 13, Cuban Consul  Ricardo Alguila provided the following statistics on the work done by professionals of the Cuban Health Brigade in Jamaica in 2019.

  • Cases seen in consultation: 215,634
  • Cases seen in the field: 942
  • Lives saved: 1,762
  • Surgeries performed: 7,349. This figure includes those of “Operación Milagro” (Ophthalmological Center), which in 2019 set a historical record for one year of work, with a total of 3,104 surgeries (1,576 cataracts, 304 pterygium, 319 laser cataracts and 905 retina laser).
  • Health fairs: 25.

Michael Manley’s vision

The medical collaboration between Jamaica and Cuba dates back to 1976 when at the request of the Michael Manley-led Jamaican government, Cuba sent a brigade of 14 doctors to the island.

This request was the fruit of a broader and bold vision of  the then Prime Ministers of Barbados (Errol Barrow), Guyana (Forbes Burnham), Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago (Eric Williams) who led the struggle to end the isolation of Cuba in the region, orchestrated by the US.  .  Manley and the other leaders argued for a united and integrated set of Caribbean nations, with no exclusion. They felt that the isolation of any Caribbean state was not in the best interest of the peoples of CARICOM and was an offspring of the cold war between two World super-powers that were external to the  region.  So, despite strong opposition from the government of the US and the leadership of the local Jamaican Labour Party, Manley and the other three leaders established diplomatic relations with Cuba, thereby starting a process which led to the inclusion of Cuba in the CARICOM.  Today they have been absolved by history and both local political parties, as well as all countries in the world except the US and the few led by its allies, look to Cuba for assistance as is happening at this very moment as the World combats the coronavirus.

 

167th Anniversary of José Martí’s birth celebrated in Jamaica

Source:  Minrex

January 28 2020

The celebration in Jamaica of the 167th anniversary of the birth of our National Hero, José Martí, took place at the Technical School that bears his name, with the presence of officials from the Cuban State Mission and members of the board of the Association of Cubans Resident in Jamaica, who were invited for the occasion.

Kingston, Jamaica, 28 January 2020. 

The celebration in Jamaica of the 167th anniversary of the birth of our National Hero, José Martí, took place at the Technical School that bears his name, with the presence of officials from the Cuban State Mission and members of the board of the Association of Cubans Resident in Jamaica, who were invited for the occasion.

This institution, located in Spanish Town, was a gift that the people and Government of Cuba gave to the people and Government of Jamaica 43 years ago.

This January 28, the morning devotion ceremony at the School was conducted entirely in Spanish and the Simple Verses of the apostle of Cuban independence were recited or sung to the sound of La Guantanamera.

Speaking on behalf of the Cuban State Mission, Mr. Ulises Calvo, Head of the Consular Office, highlighted the qualities of José Martí as a revolutionary leader, teacher of generations and defender of the most advanced ideas and values ​​of his time.

Regarding the School and what it represents, he said: “There are many things that make it unique: its architecture, the combination of study and work as part of learning; the level of Spanish language proficiency and the vast knowledge about Cuba that teachers provide to students; the murals with portraits of Martí and Fidel … everything I see here reminds me a lot of my school in Cuba […] We are grateful and proud to see the hard work carried out by the staff, the students and the community in general to honour the name of this school and the eternal friendship between our two sister islands.”

At the conclusion of the ceremony, the visitors paid tribute to José Martí at the bust that honours his memory. They toured the teaching facilities and exchanged with students, teachers and members of the board of directors.

 

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Several Caribbean Nations Reject Pompeo’s Visit to Jamaica

Source:  TeleSUR
January 21 2020

 Prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda Gaston BrownePrime minister of Antigua and Barbuda Gaston Browne | Photo: Reuters

The Caribbean nations are standing in defiance of Pompeo’s attempts to split up the region and isolate friendly countries. 

The Prime Minister of Barbados Mia Mottley recently announced that her country was not sending their Foreign Minister to Jamaica in order to attend a meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.

RELATED:  Barbados Celebrates the 53rd Anniversary of Its Independence

Mottley, citing Barbados’ commitment to remaining neutral and non-aggression towards other nations, said her government would not take part in the U.S.’ attempts to divide the Caribbean region.

“I am conscious that when Errol Barrow stood and remarked that ‘we shall be friends of all and satellites of none,’ little did he know that that statement would be embraced by every single Prime Minister of government that succeeded him. It is as valid today, perhaps even more so than it was at the time of its initial delivery, Mottley said.

“As chairman of CARICOM, it is impossible for me to agree that my Foreign Minister should attend a meeting with anyone to which members of CARICOM are not invited. If some are invited and not all, then it is an attempt to divide this region,” Mottley added.

Related:  CELAC: The time has come for the region to walk in close ranks

Barbados will not be alone, however, as two more Caribbean nations have joined them in boycotting the upcoming Pompeo meeting.

Trinidad and Tobago

According to a new statement from the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, their government support Barbados’ position and will not send a representative to meet with Pompeo in Kingston, Jamaica.

The Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, Dr. Keith Rowley, said Barbados’ Prime Minister Mia Mottley has his country’s support.

“PM Mottley has the full support of the Government and the people of Trinidad and Tobago in outlining our principles and vision of Caribbean unity. In the expectation of Caribbean unity, the Prime Minister of Barbados speaks for Trinidad and Tobago,” said Prime Minister Rowley.

Grenada

Also joining Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago is Grenada, who vowed to not attend this meeting that seeks to divide the Caribbean.

The U.S. has used the Caribbean as a way to isolate countries like Venezuela and Cuba, as the shipping lanes to these two nations have been blockaded by them.

Related:  Time to re-visit Michael Manley’s path — A vision for Jamaica

Jamaica retreats from courage, Caricom ‘spineless’ …Lisa Hanna

Source:  Jamaican Observer

January 8 2018

Lisa Hanna in St Kitts

Shadow Foreign Affairs Minister Lisa Hanna has described Jamaica’s abstention vote on the UN Jerusalem resolution as a “retreat from principle, a retreat from courage”.

lisa hanna in st kittsIn a well-received address at the St Kitts and Nevis Labour Party Gala on Friday evening, Hanna also suggested that the Caribbean Community (Caricom) appeared “spineless in the face of an offensive threat”, because some countries supported the resolution, while some abstained or left the room when the vote was called.

Following is a lightly edited version of her address to the party which enjoys fraternal relations with the Opposition People’s National Party (PNP) here:

Life has taught me that courage has no limits; it might be perceived as stubborn or unreasonable and could even mean you stand alone on principle. Courage can create the perception you’re choosing battles unwisely that could adversely alter the immediate and long- term future. But courage has a responsibility to the future to take a stand, be fearless in the face of any adversity, and act in our children’s best long term interest. Our children ARE our future generation of power.

Courage is individual but also can drive people’s collective consciousness to imbue a country with national courage, and nations with regional courage.

As a region, we have a proud history of promoting respect, self-determination and tolerance of different economic and political systems. Size has never hampered our ability to stand tall, think big, and unleash our feisty/unabashed certainty that we know the answer even in the face of great opposition.

Our regional courage has never been in question and has, and should be allowed to force each of us to recognise that courage’s responsibility to the future will always translate into Caricom’s best interests.

Given the extraordinary disruptions currently taking place geopolitically, cowering in the face of bullies is NOT courage, and will not take us forward. We must never allow our pride, self-respect, and integrity as peoples of this great region to be bludgeoned into acquiescence by veiled or unveiled threats.

Retreating from taking decisions on principle has never been our preferred option.

In the absence of any public explanation for the sudden volte face, Jamaica’s recent vote at the United Nations on Jerusalem can only be taken as a retreat from principle; a retreat from courage.

Abstention (physically or verbally) cannot be the basis of a sound, strategic, and principled regional foreign policy direction.

Jamaica has always shown assertive, courageous and enlightened leadership in our foreign policy and diplomacy. The Rt Excellent Norman Manley led the world when, even before our independence, he took the position that Jamaica would not trade with apartheid South Africa.

Since then, the policies of PNP administrations have been founded on: (1) respect for the sovereignty of ALL nations (2) respect for human rights and the citizens of ALL countries and (3) a non-aligned stance.

When it was deemed detrimental to support Cuba after 1962, Michael Manley showed unrelenting support and led a united front with Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago to establish diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1972, being the first to do so in the western hemisphere.

We did the same with China. Now China’s aggressive global growth strategy has resulted in China being Jamaica’s main source of bilateral loans and foreign direct investment, and almost certainly prompted the celebrated visit to Jamaica by President Barack Obama in 2015 — the first such since Ronald Reagan’s visit 35 years ago.

That Obama visit was undoubtedly a by-product of Jamaica’s courageous stand on foreign policy issues such as relations with Cuba, China and Venezuela which sent the unmistakable signal to Washington that little Jamaica was strategically crucial to US interests and needed to be courted, NOT threatened.

It was a sign of the times — a confirmation that the basis upon which China and the USA deploys their capital and political might is inexorably changing, especially since the USA holds more Chinese debt.

It’s clear that the China Silk and Belt Road initiative has the potential to increase China’s dominance in the Asian Pacific and quietly turn the global axis of trade dominance towards China. In the meantime, USA’s response to changing world realities appears isolationist, protectionist, and inward-looking.

In the USA of 2017/18, bullyism trumps diplomacy and friendship, and exclusion trumps inclusion. These policies can only assist China’s increased geopolitical influence in global politics and reduce that of USA. Is this the bandwagon that Caricom nations wish to jump on?

The current American president’s pronouncement that climate change is a man-made phenomenon has serious implications for small island developing states (SIDS) in Caricom. Climate change is a real and potentially destructive issue for all of us who call the Caribbean our home, and we must tackle it with courage and realism or we could well be facing the total annihilation of economies.

I know the extensive work of Dr Denzil Douglas in this area to protect the coastlines of St Kitts and Nevis.

They say “he who feels it knows it” and “rain don’t fall on one man roof”. Back to back category five hurricanes are now our reality in the region and we ALL felt the devastation by Irma and Maria.

Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit’s emotional pronouncements at the UN last year should serve as a chilling reminder to urgently brace for this year. In this fight We must not only survive but we MUST prevail.

To do this we MUST speak as one voice and have the courage to press for the complete removal of the failed US-imposed embargo on Cuba which has deprived the us from valuable trade with one of our closest neighbours.

We MUST have the courage and speak as one voice to bend the reluctance of international lending agencies to grant concessionary loans at lower interest rates to our member states in the aftermath of natural disasters, in spite of our GDP per capita.

We MUST have the courage and speak as one voice to take the risk and bet on Caricom —one for all and all for one. If you threaten one, you threaten all!

The world has changed significantly since our respective independence. If we are realistic, acting individually as nations will easily marginalise us and lead to us ultimately being globally irrelevant. As Caricom we are a strong voice at the table.

The recent UN vote, where we had some countries voting for, some abstaining and some just absent from the room, does not project a unified front. We appeared spineless in the face of an offensive threat.

As a region we’re bonded by so much more than West Indies cricket. When Usain Bolt or Kimani James compete internationally, they run not only for their respective countries but on behalf of all of us bonded by history, climate and economic circumstances.

Let the world not only see our beaches and our music but our spirit, our courage, and our fervent value system that doing what is right is far superior to might.

Many of you in this room were a part of a generation that gave the world true examples of regional activism, and you did it in step with your Caribbean brothers and sisters in leadership.

What will my child and your child take from our generation of leadership on their behalf? Abstention should never be our legacy. Our only option is to show them our courage.

VI Caricom-Cuba Summit Celebrates 15 Years of Good Relations

Source:  TeleSUR
4 December 2017

6th cuba caricomThe summit will be held in Antigua and Barbuda. | Photo: Cuban Foreign Ministry

Ministers say they hope Friday’s meetings will create a “space for exchange and coordination in a frank, friendly and fraternal environment.”

The Caribbean Community is preparing to meet with Cuban officials for the sixth round of talks aimed at restructuring international trade beginning Dec. 8.

RELATED:  Caribbean Countries Unite to Digitize Judicial Processes

The VI Caricom-Cuba Summit will be held in Antigua and Barbuda as it celebrates the 15th anniversary of its tri-annual summits and the 45th year of continued diplomacy and solidarity in the Caribbean.

Cuba’s Foreign Ministry expressed its gratitude to the Caribbean’s continued support amid the U.S. blockade, saying it will never forget the kindness and attitude of its leaders, namely Errol Barrow, Forbes Burnham, Michael Manley and Eric Williams, Prensa Latina reported.

These leaders were monumental in opening the door to mutual respect, friendship and cooperation between the Caribbean nations, the ministry said.

92 percent increase

Due to the 45 years of good relations as well as the gradual integration of Cuba’s health, education and sports, the nation has seen a rise in trade output and finances. In 2016 alone, trade was US$126 million a 92 percent increase from the year before.

According to the Cuban Minister of Foreign Trade and Investment Rodrigo Malmierca, over 5,000 Caribbean students have studied in Cuba and as a result of the regional organization’s strong relations with Cuba, the island has been able to assist neighboring nations such as Haiti with desperately needed disaster relief more quickly.

RELATED: Tri-Continental Nations Support Caribbean Quest for Reparations

“It continues to be a challenge to all our governments and commercial enterprises to streamline the foundation we have already set up. What is significant is that there is a definite will and a firm determination for all to carry out that task,” he said of the Caricom-Cuba relations.

The delegations signed the Second Protocol of the Agreement of Trade and Economic Cooperation with Caricom in November in order to expand business and trade endeavors throughout the Caribbean.

Ministers say they hope Friday’s meetings will create a “space for exchange and coordination in a frank, friendly and fraternal environment.”

The summit has been held since 2002, stemming from a convention which established the diplomatic relations between Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago on Dec. 8, 1972.

Michael Manley presents Muhammad Ali with the key to Kingston

Sources:  JSC &  Final Call

It was 42 years ago in December 1974, that Muhammad Ali, the heavyweight boxing champion and student of the Honourable Elijah Muhammad, was invited to Jamaica by then Prime Minister Michael Manley.

Michael Manley and Muhammad Ali 4.jpg

Muhammad Ali with a copy of Michael Manley’s book The Politics of Change

According to some reports, Michael Manley told Ali that “your fist might have put you in everybody’s favour…but it is your conscience that has written you into immortality in the history of human affairs.”

Muhammad was presented with the key to Kingston in front of thousands of Jamaicans at the National Stadium .

Also travelling with Muhammad were members of the Nation of Islam, including a young Minister Louis Farrakhan who exposed the large gathering to the teachings of Elijah Mohammed for the first time.

Manley’s invitation to Muhammad and the Nation of Islam marked a change in official government policy as years earlier the patriarch of the Nation of Islam had been denied entry into the country under Prime Minister Hugh Shearer.

Below is the cover of the January 17, 1975 Muhammad Speaks Vol. 14 No. 19 edition that covered the 1974 Nation of Islam visit to Kingston, Jamaica.

islam in jamaica the final call

Muhammad Ali also met with Bunny Grant, prolific Jamaican boxer of the 50s, 60s and 70s and winner of the Jamaican lightweight title, the Jamaican welterweight title, the Central American light welterweight title, the Latin American junior welterweight title, and the British Commonwealth lightweight title.

muhammad ali and bunny grant 2.jpg

Muhammad Ali spars with Jamaica’s Bunny Grant

 

Time to Re-visit Michael Manley’s path – A Vision for Jamaica

Source:  Jamaica Observer
(Photos and links added by Editor)

Al Grey

Ever since Jamaica earned formal political freedom from the British colonial empire, the government and people of Jamaica have had two basic choices in terms of developmental paths open to the nation – one, a neo-colonialist path that would continue the exploitation of our natural resources and people in the interest of the multinational corporations and a few Jamaicans, and the other, a path that would sever the colonial relation and start a process of development for the majority of the people.

bustaIn 1962, under the leadership of the Jamaica Labour Party with Alexander Bustamante as its head and with a politically divided people, the nation took the neocolonial path where a disproportionate part of the wealth generated by the productive forces in Jamaica continued to go to the multinational companies and the local elite class.

The neocolonial path was not a purely economic one.  It also manifested itself in our popular culture.  The music played on the national radio station continued to be predominantly non-Jamaican; the movie theaters continued to show films with few persons of African descent ever seen in a positive role; our manner of dress continued to be of the colonial ilk – judges wearing wigs, the dress code for church and formal activities remained incongruous with our tropical climate; despite the population being over 90% African our ‘Miss Jamaica’ competitions continued to shun women of pure African stock, and so on. (Photo: Alexander Bustamante, Prime Minister of Jamaica and President of the Jamaica Labour Party, 1962)

Look deh now: Everything crash

everything crash 2According to the indicators provided by some economists, Jamaica was doing quite well along the neocolonial path in the 60s showing respectable economic growth.  Yet in the 1972 national elections, the people strongly rejected the JLP and the Michael Manley led People’s National Party, PNP, registered a landslide victory.  In fact, the sound track for the struggles to remove the neocolonialist JLP was the then very popular Reggae song Everything Crash  by the Ethiopians – a song which started with the words ‘Look deh now, everything crash’.  What was seen as development for the 1% attracted these words from a wider cross-section of the people including the youth, workers and farmers.

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Michael Manley Addresses the UN in Observance of the International Anti-Apartheid Year, 1978

Address at a special meeting of the General Assembly in observance of the International Anti-Apartheid Year, UN by Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica

11 October 1978, New York

michael manley 5It was with deep humility and a profound sense of history and its obligations that I accepted the invitation to address this Assembly, at this particular moment in the struggle against apartheid and for the final liberation of southern Africa. Even as we meet here, we feel the presence of the spirit of the martyrs who died at Sharpeville and Soweto. We feel that Steve Biko is a witness to these proceedings. Even as I speak, millions of young lives are being warped and crushed in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, and their blighted hopes stand as a monumental reproach to all mankind.

I dare to speak, not in my own right, but as a part and product of a process of the struggle in Jamaica and the entire Caribbean. We look at our tormented brothers in southern Africa from a unique historical perspective; ourselves the victims of every outrage still perpetrated in South Africa, we are the products of a slave system which was the foundation for a unique colonial experience. We have known genocide, racism, oppression and exploitation as colonialism and later neo-colonialism have dominated our lives. Equally, we have struggled for our own liberation and have always recognized that our labours were a part of a world experience and very particularly linked to Africa`s struggle.

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Witter: Lessons from the IMF Experiences

mikey witter 2In reflecting on our 50 years of Independence, the Government of Jamaica and the IMF should draw lessons from the 39 years of borrowing from the IMF to help to frame the agreement currently being negotiated.  So much has changed in our attitudes since the history-changing agreement with the IMF of 1977.  Today’s negotiators were university students then, and conscious enough to understand the critiques of the agreements of those years and the global and domestic political interests the agreements supported, whether intended or not. (Photo:  Dr. Michael Witter)

The lead IMF negotiator of the aborted 2010 agreement is one of several Jamaicans who occupy very senior positions in the IMF.  One of their peers, who is currently a lead negotiator for the Government of Jamaica, co-authored one of the most incisive and cited critiques of the IMF’s relations with the Third World, using Jamaica as a case study.  In 1977, Jamaica and the IMF knew very little about each other. Today, after hundreds of studies of the IMF, and after many international and local studies of the Jamaican economy, the negotiators for both sides know a lot more about each other.

Read more at:  http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20120708/focus/focus3.html