Cubans living in Kentucky, USA, honor José Martí (+ Photos)

Source:  Prensa Latina /La Santa Mambisa
May 19 2018

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Cubans living in the US state of Kentucky paid tribute today to the National Hero of his native country, José Martí, on the occasion of the 123 anniversary of the famous patriot’s fall in action.

More than 20 members of the so-called Casa Cuba organization from Kentucky gathered and laid a wreath before a bust of the Apostle, located in a park in the town of Shively.

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The sculpture was relocated there six years ago thanks to the efforts of Cuban businessman Wilbert Fonseca and local authorities, including Mayor Sherry Sinegra Conner.

Coming from the largest of the Antilles, the piece arrived in Louisville, the most populated city of that territory, in the mid-1950s of the last century and was in public view until 1962, when it was removed and later stored in a warehouse .

After this event, which was attended by the Consul General of Cuba in the United States, Alejandro Padrón, an exhibition of photos and reproductions of Martí was inaugurated in a center of the aforementioned city.

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This show also recognizes the work of the American sculptor Anna Hyatt, who gave life to the equestrian statue of the war organizer of 1895-1898 against Spanish colonialism, which is located in the Central Park of New York, and a replica of him in Havana.

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Likewise, María Elena Segura, deputy director of the Center for Martial Studies of the Cuban capital, spoke about the final moments of Martí’s life, and highlighted the dedication to the independence cause of his country.

During her speech, the specialist referred to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, the Patria newspaper, the Montecristi Manifesto, the Master’s relationship with the military strategists Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo, and the role of emigration in preparing for the war.

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He answered several questions from the audience, which also offered assessments and highlighted the work of the eminent politician, writer, journalist and diplomat.

On the other hand, Segura donated texts and compact discs with the 27 volumes of the critical edition of the Complete Works of Martí, that arrive until now to 1889, when the man of the Golden Age was 36 years old.

“We wanted to pay homage to our National Hero, who summoned everyone for the good of all,” Raul Cuan, head of Casa Cuba of Kentucky, told Prensa Latina.

This entity emerged last July in order to group the Cubans as a community and keep alive collectively the love and ties with their native country.

We maintain the purpose of continuing to strengthen our unity, said Cuan, who also mentioned the importance of evoking historical events on the Caribbean island, at least in a simple way.

Three Mambises of our times

Source:  Granma
February 25 2018

Speech by Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, first secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba and President of the Councils of State and Ministers, in the tribute ceremony held in the Capitolio building, February 24, 2018, “Year 60 of the Revolution”

Compañeras and compañeros:

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Today, February 24, we celebrate the 123rd anniversary of the resumption of our War of Independence called for by José Martí.

The profound significance of this date marked the maturity and the crystallization of the project proposed by Martí, who in order to lead it and to make it happen, founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party.

When everything seemed lost, his ability to find an alternative and overcome any setback, led him to summon the people to a definitive effort: the war that he believed necessary when he thought it unavoidable. He continually called for national unity, articulating the best traditions of the past, without overlooking all those who were willing to sacrifice and give their lives for a greater cause.

A month later, on March 25, 1895, in Montecristi, the Dominican Republic, Martí, along with Major General Máximo Gómez, signed the Manifesto which set out the scope and aims of the struggle. Together they left for Cuba to join the liberation struggle, landing at Playitas de Cajobabo on April 11, just like Major General Antonio Maceo had done a few days before at Duaba.

As Fidel stated on the 100th anniversary of the Ten Years War, “Martí gathered up the flags of Céspedes, Agramonte, and the heroes that fell in that struggle and led Cuba’s revolutionary ideas in that period to their highest expression.”

Three brave compañeros

There is no better moment than this to award the honorific title of Hero of Labor of the Republic of Cuba – in fitting recognition of a lifetime of work committed to the Revolution – to three brave compañeros who already hold the honorable title of Heroes of the Republic of Cuba. I am referring to José Ramón Machado Ventura and Comandantes of the Revolution Ramiro Valdés Menéndez and Guillermo García Frías.

José Ramón Machado

As for Machado Ventura, I could highlight that he joined the struggle against the tyranny as a medical student at the University of Havana, and 65 years ago he participated in the first March of the Torches, in January 1953.

In 1957 he joined the Rebel Army in the Sierra Maestra and served as a doctor and guerilla fighter in various battles. He was a founder of the Second Front; and organized and led the Military Health Department until the end of the struggle, where he was wounded in combat. He developed a broad network of field hospitals and dispensaries which not only offered services to combatants but also, and most importantly, the area’s population, who in many places had never seen a doctor before.

After the triumph of the Revolution he was appointed Head of Medical Services of Havana and of the FAR(Revolutionary Armed Forces) and later Minister of Public Health.

He is a founder of the Communist Party of Cuba and in 1975 was elected as a member of the Political Bureau. He was First Party Secretary in various provinces.
Since 2011, he has served as second secretary of the Central Committee. He is a vice president of the Councils of State and Ministers.

Ramiro Valdés

Ramiro Valdés Menéndez joined the revolutionary struggle at a young age. He participated in the March of the Torches in January 1953 and in the attacks on the Moncada Garrison that same year, during which he was injured. He was imprisoned on the Isle of Pines and lived in exile in Mexico, where he joined the Granma expedition.

He was involved in multiple battles in the Sierra Maestra, and participated alongside Che in the invasion of the West as second commander of the Ciro Redondo Column No. 8.

Since the triumph of the Revolution he has occupied important posts, including Minister of the Interior on two occasions, and as a vice president of the Councils of State and Ministers, a position which he currently holds. He is a member of the Party Political Bureau.

A lot more can be said about each one of these figures on this occasion, but in the case of Ramiro, I have always admired him because he is the only one of us who – in addition to those actions taken some months before Moncada, during which we marched in the first March of the Torches led by Fidel 65 years ago – was wounded in the taking of the main post during the Moncada assault; where he was shot in the heel with the bullet lodging itself in his foot. When we met up, or when we were brought together again at the Vivac (prison) in Santiago de Cuba, he showed me his blood-stained socks, but said he didn’t know where the bullet was. The years went by and he began to limp in the Sierra Maestra because of a callus he had on the sole of his foot. On various occasions he was unable to continue marching with the rest of the initial group of the liberation war, until one day, he began to scrape away at the callus with his own knife until the bullet of the Moncada attack appeared, shot by an enemy as he fell to the ground mortally wounded.

There are dozens or hundreds of heroic feats or important acts linked to each one, and which of course were not even recorded in the few campaign diaries that were written. What is more, unlike the rest of us in the liberation war, Ramiro had the good fortune and honor of being the second commander of the Column led by Che to Las Villas.

Guillermo García

Guillermo García Frías, who recently celebrated his 90th birthday, organized a network of campesinos to help the Granma expeditionaries and take them to the Sierra Maestra. An astute man, he personally led Fidel and the other combatants to Cinco Palmas and recovered various rifles.

He was the first campesino to join the Rebel Army, with an outstanding record, first as a combatant and later as second commander of the Third Front when it was founded in early March 1958, led by then Comandante Juan Almeida.

There are hundreds of anecdotes about Guillermo; of the early days and following the Granmalanding, we will only touch on some aspects. It was he who led Fidel and two other compañeros, Faustino Pérez – who was a doctor – and Universo Sánchez, one of which was unarmed having left his rifle behind on treating the wounded in the first clash at Alegría de Pío.

That is to say that Fidel arrived to the Sierra Maestra with two other combatants, only one of which was armed. It was Guillermo García that got them around the blockade on the old road from the Pilón sugar mill to the municipal capital of Niquero; it was he who – fulfilling other urgent missions given him by the Comandante en Jefe, from Purial de Vicana, or Cinco Palmas de Vicana, where they first set up camp – gathered together almost all of us who originally joined up, including Ramiro himself, Almeida, Che, Camilo; and thus the initial group of three, then five more, then eight, gradually reuniting this important group of compañeros.

One of the first actions he took in support of the nascent guerilla force, was the number of rifles he collected in the days following these events of which I am speaking, from the 15th to the 18th, which together with the few we already had weren’t event sufficient to form a platoon, but were enough to launch the first attack; and although it might not have been the best moment to do so, with hundreds of soldiers hot on our heels, Fidel said that, with this first battle, we had to show the people that the guerillas were still here and would continue the war. This was the reason behind the battle of La Plata, barely a few weeks after this initial group, with the help of Guillermo García, were reunited. Other tasks would follow later.

As the first campesino to join the Rebel Army, he was also the first to be promoted. He had an outstanding track record, first as a combatant and then as second commander of the Third Front, under the command of Almeida.

After the triumph of the Revolution, he occupied various positions in the Revolutionary Armed Forces. Later he also served, among other roles, as a Political Bureau delegate in the former province of Oriente; a vice president of the Councils of State and Ministers, Minister of Transport, and President of the Flora and Fauna Enterprise Group, where he has done an outstanding job.

He was a member of the Party Political Bureau from 1965 through 1986, and is currently a member of the Central Committee and Council of State.

Loyalty to the Revolution

Regarding characteristics shared by these three Mambises of our times I can cite their loyalty to the Revolution and to Fidel, their commitment to work, modesty and humility, which have made them worthy of the recognition and respect of the Cuban people.

It is not by chance that we are commemorating this date in the Capitolio building, whose tenacious restoration, has enabled the attributes of one of the most important buildings in the country to be highlighted, and in whose crypt rest the ashes of the Unknown Mambí, before which an eternal flame burns as a tribute of the people to their founding fathers and the glorious Liberation Army, and is surrounded by the flags of nations of the continent.

Today, this building is the headquarters of the National Assembly of People’s Power. It is also irrefutable proof of the care and interest that must always be put into preserving the cultural heritage of the nation.

Let me take this solemn moment to extend a well-deserved congratulations to Havana City Historian, Eusebio Leal, and those collaborators who have been most closely associated with the massive restoration of the Capitolio; including architect Perla Rosales; engineers Mariela Mulet, Yohanna Aedo and Tatiana Fernández; restoration expert Patricia Coma; professor Juan Carlos Botello and his students from the Vocational School; historian Lesbia Méndez; director of the City Historian Office’s Construction Enterprise, Conrado Hechavarría; and German expert Michael Diegmann.

On a day like today, as we honor those noble Cubans who in 1895 returned to the battle field to free Cuba, I repeat Fidel’s words spoken in 1965: “We would have been like them then, and they would have been like us now!” This is the commitment we have upheld and will also be that which guides the present and future generations, in order that the Homeland continues to be free.

Thank you very much. (Applause)

Preparations underway for the 2019 Cuban trade union congress

Source:  Granma
February 13 2018

Author:  | internet@granma.cu

This year will see an assembly process in all trade union organizations across the country, in the lead up to the 21st CTC Congress.
Photo: Agencia Cubana de Noticias
 

Preparations for the Cuban Workers’ Federation (CTC) 21st Congress will characterize union activities this 2018, which entails an assembly process of all collectives to collect opinions, demands, and guidelines to be evaluated at the national event, stated CTC Secretary General Ulises Guilarte de Nacimiento, a member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Cuba, during a press conference.

The call for the 21st Congress was announced January 28, coinciding with the 79th anniversary of the founding of the CTC and the 165th anniversary of the birth of Cuban National Hero José Martí.

Over the next 12 months, grassroots union sections will undertake an organic discussion process, make agreements, design new strategies and elect their leaders, in the lead up to the Congress scheduled to be held January 2019, to mark the CTC’s 80th anniversary.

Workplace meetings

These workplace meetings will address issues relating to employment, salaries, improvement of working conditions, health and safety, and respect for labor rights, taking into account the role of unions in guaranteeing justice in the workplace and transparency in the labor reorganization process underway in Cuba.

Debates on changes to be made in the trade union movement and the will to transform the methods and work style applied by the organization will also feature.

In addition, Guilarte de Nacimiento noted that the Congress will mark the search for better leadership and greater recognition of the work of the union within labor collectives.

“Our Congress will take a deep, analytical, wide-ranging look at the economic issue, the main battle waged in the country to reach higher rates of growth of the Gross Domestic Product,” stated Guilarte de Nacimiento.

These topics will also be discussed by participants in the national conferences of the unions of Culture, Tourism, Civil Defense, and Sugar industry workers, which will also meet in 2018.

Drawing up strategies

All these union events will focus their debates on drawing up strategies within a labor scenario marked by the reorganization of employment, which has been growing in the non-state sector, in which 29% of the country’s economically active population now works.

“Today we have a qualitative change in the composition of our labor landscape, as guidelines have been established in the regulatory framework. Right now the legal norms of non-state work are being perfected and the improvement of the business system, referring to socialist state enterprises, has just been published in the Official Gazette of the Republic,” the CTC secretary general explained.

He also noted that the financial and material tensions experienced will persist, therefore reserves of untapped efficiency must be exploited, especially as regards savings, import substitution, and the production of exportable goods.

Unity, discipline, and solidarity

He insisted on the need to avoid wasteful use of fuel, electricity, water, and gas, and highlighted the unity, discipline, and solidarity shown by workers during the recovery process following the serious damage caused by Hurricane Irma.

“Through our own efforts we were able to rebuild the tourist infrastructure of the country, mainly in the northern keys, in only 62 days. In just another 20 days the power grids were ready for the generation and supply of energy. Under the leadership of Provincial and Municipal Defense Councils, communications and electricity workers, builders, and food industry workers were mobilized, who worked uninterruptedly and ensured basic services,” Guilarte de Nacimiento stressed.

In this regard, he noted that unions selected some 500 labor collectives and about 2,500 individual workers to receive awards in recognition of their efforts. In January 2019, individuals will be decorated as Heroes of Labor of the Republic of Cuba, and receive the Lázaro Peña Order in the first, second and third grades, medals, and diplomas. Meanwhile, outstanding collectives will receive the Labor Feat flag, distinctions, and certificates.

A message of congratulations to all

The union leader sent a message of congratulations to all. “On this new anniversary of the triumph of the Revolution, on the road to achieving 60 years of socialist victories, we send our regards, affection and appreciation, for having shown class consciousness and monolithic unity around the project we have decided to build. We wish them the greatest prosperity, health, and all our gratitude to their compañeros and relatives.”

The CTC secretary general also sent greetings to friends around the world and noted that the current international context is characterized by a divided trade union movement, under attack with the direct impact of neoliberal policies, in which underemployment, discriminatory policies against immigrants, young people and women predominate. Added to this is the loss of social gains and labor rights.

Today, trade union organizations are on the offensive, promoting integration among left forces. “We appeal for the involvement of social interlocutors such as the landless movements, ecologists, feminists, and youth and student movements, who in their mobilizing practice have reflected a standard of unity and integration, to confront this neoliberal offensive,” the Cuban union leader stressed.

“From Cuba and as part of our administration as a vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, we advocate for global spaces within organizations such as the International Labour Organization, forums, congresses, and events, to ensure the real mobilization of workers. We need a unified platform for action within the international trade union movement to confront imperialist policies,” he concluded.

Nicolás Maduro pays respects to Jose Marti and Fidel Castro

Source:  Granma

August 16 2017

by: Yaima Puig Meneses y Yudy Castro Morales | internet@granma.cu

The Venezuelan President was accompanied by Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, First Combatant Cilia Flores, and Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez  Parilla

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Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro Moros visited the Santa Ifigenia cemetery in Santiago de Cuba, yesterday August 15, accompanied by Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, to pay his respects to Cuba’s national hero José Martí and Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro, on the 91st anniversary of his birth.

The two leaders, along with First Combatant Cilia Flores, and Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla, observed the changing of the guard ceremony at the graves where the remains of Martí and Fidel rest.

The first tribute was to the Teacher, in his mausoleum, where they deposited white roses alongside the single starred flag.

Before the granite boulder that holds Fidel’s ashes, they placed flowers, since the Venezuelan President could not miss a visit on the 91st birthday of the Comandante en Jefe who always championed the Bolivarian Revolution.

The group also paid tribute to July 26 Movement martyrs and those who gave their lives as internationalists after the triumph of the Revolution in January of 1959.

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In a brief tour of Santa Ifigenia, Raúl spoke with Maduro about Cuba’s history, explaining why Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is considered the country’s founding father; recalling Mariana Grajales and María Cabrales, mother and widow of General Antonio Maceo, respectively; and informing the visiting President about several officers in the War of Independence who are buried in the historic cemetery.

Stopping alongside the tomb of Frank País García, they also left flowers, and Raúl recalled the valiant youth who was murdered, as was his brother Josue, by the Batista dictatorship.

Soldier of ideas

 

It is unquestionable that Fidel is incarnated in the hearts of millions of Cubans and admirers throughout the world.

We evoke him dressed in his customary olive green uniform with its epaulets of Comandante en Jefe, with his upright gait, friendly manner, inquisitive gaze; and the deep anti-imperialist convictions he shared with Martí; his iron will to overcome the hardest blows, his wisdom… and above all his infinite love for humanity, for the poor, to whom he dedicated his entire life.

The eminent Cuban writer, debater, professor and diplomat Raúl Roa García said of Fidel, “He hears the grass growing and sees what’s happening around the corner.” He is our undefeated Comandante, confronting any danger whatsoever to safeguard the sovereignty and dignity of Cuba. He is the man who, alongside the people, defeated a bloody military dictatorship and the dark imperialist designs of 11 U.S. administrations, which failed in their efforts to eliminate, even with attempts on his life, the example, the symbol, the soldier of ideas he was.

Che’s farewell letter to Fidel

It’s worth recalling the farewell letter Che Guevara wrote to Fidel, in which the legendary Argentine-Cuban said, “I have lived magnificent days at your side and felt the pride of belonging to our people in the luminous and sad days of the Caribbean (missile) Crisis.

“Few times has a statesman shone as brightly (as you did) on those days. I am also proud to have followed you without hesitation, identifying with your way of thinking, seeing, and evaluating dangers and principles.”

Today, the prolific seeds he sowed in millions of followers across the entire planet are flowering. And resounded in the sure words of Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, President of the Councils of State and Ministers, during the closing of the constituent session of the National Assembly of People’s Power 7th Legislature, February 24, 2008, when he said, “Fidel is Fidel. We all know it well. Fidel is irreplaceable and the people will continue his work when he is no longer physically present. Although his ideas always will be those which have made it possible to uphold the bastion of dignity and justice our country represents.” He was not mistaken.

This August 13, when Fidel would have celebrated his 91st birthday, he continues among us, surrounded by the affection of his people. He bequeathed to us his abiding guidance, his revolutionary firmness, his unwavering optimism and confidence in victory. Thus our best tribute will be making a reality of his principles every day, regardless of where he might be.

 

March of the torches across all of Cuba

Source: Granma
January 16 2017

by María Elena Álvarez Ponce | internet@granma.cu

The people united will march the night of January 28, on the eve of the anniversary of José Martí’s birth, from San Antonio to Maisí, with Fidel as always

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Photo: Yaimí Ravelo

The night of January 28

Havana.–From San Antonio to Maisí, for Cuba and Martí, and as always with Fidel, the people united will march the night of January 28, in a tribute to José Martí, on the eve of the anniversary of his birth.

In 168 municipalities 

Confirming the news was Susely Morfa González, member of the Communist Party of Cuba’s Central Committee and the Council of State, first secretary of the Young Communists League (UJC). She reported to the press that marches will take place in 168 municipalities across the country, in which men, women, youth, children, workers, older adults, retirees, homemakers, veteran combatants, and students will fill the nation’s streets to honor the national hero.

The demonstrations of patriotism will begin in unison shortly after 10pm on the night of the 27th, in an unequivocal show of support for the Revolution by a people which is true to its roots, proud of its history, conscious of all that has been accomplished, and confident in the future being constructed, she said.

World Festival of Youth

Together we will raise torches, the flame of life and liberty, as Fidel and his generation did on the first such march held in 1953, Morfa explained, departing from the University of Havana’s Grand Staircase and culminating at the Fragua where the youthful José Martí was imprisoned.

The Young Communist League leader additionally noted that the march will take place after a meeting of the national committee making preparations for Cuba’s participation in the upcoming World Festival of Youth, set to take place this coming October in the Russian city of Sochi. (ACN)

Fidel Castro: Hero of the Dispossessed

Source:  Granma
August 22 2016

New book by Salim Lamrani on the historic leader of the Cuban Revolution

Author: Salim Lamrani | internet@granma.cu

Photo: Granma

fidel castro hero of the dispossessed.jpgA controversial figure in the West, where he is heavily criticized, Fidel Castro is instead admired by the peoples of Latin America and the Third World, who consider him a symbol of resistance to oppression and a champion of the aspirations of the countries of the South to independence, sovereignty and self-determination. A mythical rebel, who has entered the pantheon of the great liberators of the Americas, the former guerrilla of the Sierra Maestra has seen his prestige surpass continental borders to become the archetype of anti-imperialism in the twentieth century and the champion of a universal message of emancipation.

Western media, due to its entrenched ideological position and clear condescension toward the peoples of the South, has failed to understand the historic significance of Fidel Castro to Cuba, Latin America and the Third World. Since the times of José Martí, Cuba’s national hero, no other figure has as powerfully embodied the aspirations of the Cuban people to national sovereignty, economic independence and social justice.

Symbol of pride, dignity, resistance and loyalty to principles

Fidel Castro is a symbol of pride, dignity, resistance and loyalty to principles and his status has surpassed the borders of his homeland to span the entire world. The historic leader of the Cuban Revolution took up arms in favor of the oppressed and reclaimed their right to a decent life. Born into a wealthy family from the east of the country, he gave up his class privileges to defend the voiceless, ignored and abandoned to their fate by the powerful.

Fidel Castro enjoys historic legitimacy. Arms in hand, he fought against the bloody dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista during the attack on the Moncada barracks in 1953 and during the uprising in the Sierra Maestra from December, 1956, through December, 1958. He triumphed against a brutal military regime endowed with an impressive firepower and backed by the United States. In a context of extreme hostility, he has realized the dream of José Martí, of an independent and sovereign Cuba and has led his people on the path to complete and definitive emancipation, in steadfast resistance to the hegemonic pretensions of Washington.

Fidel Castro also enjoys constitutional legitimacy. Each individual has the right to think what they want about the Cuban electoral system, but Fidel was elected President every five years, from 1976 to 2006. Prior to this, he served as prime minister and not as president of the Republic. Contrary to popular belief, Cuba has had no fewer than four presidents since 1959: Manuel Urrutia from January, 1959, to July, 1959, Osvaldo Dorticós from July, 1959, to 1975, Fidel Castro from 1976 to 2006 and Raúl Castro from 2006 to the present.

The  support of the people

No leader can remain at the helm of a country for thirty years, in a context of latent war with the United States, without the majority support of the people. Obviously, as in any society, there are the unsatisfied, the disappointed, the critics. The Cuban Revolution, the work of women and men, is by definition imperfect and has never had the intention of establishing itself as an example. But the vast majority of Cubans have huge respect for Fidel Castro and have never cast doubt on his noble intentions. The United States always has been very clear about this. Thus, on April 6, 1960, Lester D. Mallory, deputy assistant secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, recalled in a memorandum to Roy Rubottom Jr., then assistant secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, the standing of the Cuban leader: “The majority of Cubans support Castro […] There is no effective political opposition […] The only foreseeable means of alienating internal support is through disenchantment and disaffection based on economic dissatisfaction and hardship.” (1)

Washington’s imposition of extremely severe economic sanctions

Washington followed that advice, as evidenced by the policy of fierce hostility toward the Cubans, with the imposition of extremely severe economic sanctions that remain in place today. But this endeavor has not been crowned with success. Indeed, nearly half a century later, Fidel Castro’s popularity remains very much alive. Such was noted by Jonathan D. Farrar, then chief U.S. diplomat in Havana, who continued to emphasize Cubans’ “significant personal admiration for Fidel,” recalling that “It would be a mistake to underestimate […] the support the government has especially in poor communities and with some groups of University students.” (2)

Alongside the poor and oppressed

Three aspects characterize the figure of Fidel Castro. Firstly, he is the architect of national sovereignty, realizing the dream of the Apostle and National Hero José Martí of an independent Cuba and returning dignity to the people of the island. Secondly, he is the social reformer who has positioned himself alongside the poor and oppressed, creating one of the least unjust societies of the Third World. Finally, he is the internationalist who has extended a generous hand to those peoples in need, and has placed solidarity and integration at the center of Cuba’s foreign policy.

Salim Lamrani

Fidel Castro, héros des déshérités (Fidel Castro: Hero of the Dispossessed)

Paris, Editions Estrella, 2016

272 pages.

(1) Lester D. Mallory, Memorandum From the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (Mallory) to the Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs (Rubottom), April, 6, 1960, Department of State, Central Files, 737.00/4-660, Secret, Drafted by Mallory, in Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1958-1960, Volume VI, Cuba: (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1991), p. 885.

(2) Jonathan D. Farrar, The Speculation on Fidel’s Health, United States Interests Section, January, 9, 2009, cable 09HAVANA35, http://213.251.145.96/cable/2009/01/09HAVANA35.html (Website viewed December 18, 2010).